Santiago Hernández León


Dr. Santiago Hernández-León is a biological oceanographer at the Institute of Oceanography and Global Change in the Canary Islands. He obtained the degree in biology in 1980, master thesis in 1982, and received a Ph.D in Oceanography in 1986 from the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands). He is professor (chair) of zoology in the Marine Sciences School at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. He was Vice-Dean of this Faculty from 1994 to 1998, and Dean from 2004 to 2005. His research interest is related to the effect of climate on the ecology and physiology of plankton communities. He has been working on the role of micro-, mesozooplankton and micronekton in the oceanic carbon flux from the Arctic to Antarctica, but he is especially interested in the assessment of the active flux due to vertical migrants in subtropical waters. He is also interested in the study of trophic cascades and how they affect the ocean biogeochemistry.

Research interests: 
  • Biological Oceanography
  • Zooplankton Physiology
  • Ecology

Recent publications

Armengol, L., Franchy, G., Ojeda, A., Santana-del Pino, A., Hernández-León, S., 2017. Effects of copepods on natural microplankton communities: do they exert top-down control? Marine Biology, 164:136.

Landeira, J. M., Brochure, T., Mason, E., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2017. Transport pathways of decapod larvae under intense mesoscale activity in the Canary-African coastal transition zone: implications for population connectivity. Scientia Marina 81(3).

Ariza, A., Landeira, J. M ., Escánez, A ., Wienerroither, R ., Aguilar de Soto, N ., Røstad, A., Kaartvedt, S., Hernández-León, S., 2016. Vertical distribution, composition and migratory patterns of acoustic scattering layers in the Canary Islands.

Jaramillo-Vélez, A., Inmaculada Menéndez, I., Alonso, I., Mangas, J., Hernández-León, S., 2016. Grain size, morphometry and mineralogy of airborne input in the Canary basin: evidence of iron particle retention in the mixed layer. Scientia Marina 80(3).

Yebra, L., Kobari, T., Sastri, A. R., Gusmão, F., Hernández-León, S., 2016. Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production. Advances in Marine Biology.

Ariza, A., Garijo, J. C., Landeira, J. M., Bordes, F., Hernández-León, S., 2015. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Progress in Oceanography, in press.

Berraho, A., Somoue, L., Hernández-León, S., Valdés, L., 2015. Zooplankton in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem. In: Valdés, L. and Déniz-González, I (eds.), Oceanographic and biological features in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem. IOC-UNESCO, Paris. IOC Technical Series, 115, 183-195.

Garijo, J. C., Hernández-León, S., 2015. The use of image based analysis systems for the assessment of zooplankton physiological rates: a comparison with enzymatic methods. Journal of Plankton Research.

Olivar, M., González-Gordillo, J. I., Salat, J., Chust, G., Cózar, A., Hernández-León, S., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., Irigoien X., 2015. The contribution of migratory mesopelagic fishes to neuston fish assemblages across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Ariza, A., Kaartvedt, S., Røstad, A., Garijo, J.C., Arístegui, J., Fraile-Nuez, E., Hernández-León, S. (2014). The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102354.

Cózar, A., Echevarría, F., González-Gordillo, J. I., Irigoien, X., Úbeda, B., Hernández-León, S., Palma, A. T., Navarro, S., García-de-Lomas, J., Ruiz, A., Fernández-de-Puelles, M. L., M. Duarte, C., 2014. Plastic debris in the open ocean. PNAS, 111(28).

García Muñoz, C., García, C. M., Lubián, L. M., López-Urrutia, A., Hernández-León, S., Julia Ameneiro, J., 2014. Metabolic state along a summer north–south transect near the Antarctic Peninsula: a size spectra approach. Journal of Plankton Research.

Moyano, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Benítez-Barrios, V., Hernández-León, S., 2014. Larval fish distribution and retention in the Canary Current system during the weak upwelling season. Fisheries Oceanography.

Sangrà, P., García-Muñoz, C., García, C. M., Marrero-Díaz, A., Sobrino, C., Mouriño-Carballido, B., Aguiar-González, B., Henríquez-Pastene, C., Rodríguez-Santana, A., Lubián, L. M., Hernández-Arencibia, M., Hernández-León, S., Vázquez, E., Estrada-Allis, S. N., 2014. Coupling between the upper ocean layer variability and size-fractionated phytoplankton in a non-nutrient-limited environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 499, 35-46.

Benavides, M., Arístegui, J., Agawin, N. S. R., Hernández-León, S., López Cancio, J. L., 2013. Enhancement of nitrogen fixation rates by unicellular diazotrophs versus Trichodesmium after a dust deposition event in the Canary Islands. Limnology and Oceanography, 58, 267-275.

Bode, A., Acuña, J. L., Bueno, J., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Gordillo, J. I., Hernández-León, S., Irigoien, X., Mompeán, C., Olivar, M. P., 2012. Mapping plankton biomass in the deep-ocean: an ecological provinces approach. ICES C.M. 2012/ R:02.

García-Muñoz, C., López-Urrutia, A., Lubián, L., García, C., Hernández-León, S., 2013. A comparison of primary production models in an area of high mesoscale variability (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Journal of Sea Research.

Hernández-León, S., Sangrà, P., Lehette, P., Lubián, L., Almeida, C., Putzeys, S., Bécognée, P., Andrade, M. P., 2013. Zooplankton biomass and metabolism in the frontal zones of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Journal of Marine Systems, 111-112, 196-207.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Temporal and alongshore distribution of decapod larvae in the oceanic island of Gran Canaria (NW Africa). Journal of Plankton Research, 35, 309-322.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Stratification effects on the plankton of the subtropical Canary Current.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., Calbet, A., 2013. Microzooplankton grazing in the oceans: impacts, data variability, gaps of knowledge, and future directions. Journal of Plankton Research (accepted).

Schmoker, C., Ojeda, A., Hernández-León, S., 2013. Patterns of plankton communities in subtropical waters off the Canary Islands during the late winter bloom.

Teira, E., Mouriño-Carballido, B., Martínez-García, S., Sobrino, C., Ameneiro, J., Hernández-León, S., Vázquez, F., 2012. Controls of primary production and bacterial carbon metabolism around South Shetland Islands. Deep-Sea Research I 69, 70-81.

Caldentey, P., Bordes, F., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Variabilidad espacio-temporal de la biomasa de la capa profunda de reflexión en aguas Canarias. Vector Plus.

Fraile-Nuez, E., González-Dávila, M., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Arístegui, J., Alonso-González, I. J., Hernández-León, S., Blanco, M. J., Rodríguez-Santana, A., Hernández-Guerra, A., Gelado-Caballero, M. D., Eugenio, F., Marcello, J., de Armas, D., Domínguez-Yanes, J. F., Montero, M. F., Laetsch, D. R., Vélez-Belchí, P., Ramos, A., Ariza, A. V., Comas-Rodríguez, I., Benítez-Barrios, V. M., 2012. The submarine volcano eruption of El Hierro Island: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response. Nature Scientific Reports , 2, 486.

Herrera, I., Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Effect of temperature and food concentration on Paracartia grani nauplii growth and protein synthesis rates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 416-417, 101-109.

Lehette, P., Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Krill excretion and impact on primary production during austral summer 2005 along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 459, 29–38.

Schmoker, C., Arístegui, J., Hernández-León, S., 2012. Planktonic biomass variability during a late winter bloom in the subtropical waters off the Canary Islands. Journal of Marine Systems, 95, 24-31.

Benítez-Barrios, V. M., Pelegrí, J. L., Hernández-Guerra, A., Lwiza, K. M. M., Gomis, D., Vélez-Belchí, P., Hernández-León, S., 2011. Three-Dimensional Circulation in the NW Africa Coastal Transition Zone. Progress in Oceanography 91, 516-533.

Brochier, T., Mason, E., Moyano, M., Berraho, A., Colas, F., Sangrà, P., Hernández-León, S., Ettahiri, O., Lett, C., 2011. Ichthyoplankton transport from the African coast to the Canary Islands, Journal of Marine System, 89, 109-122.

Putzeys, S., Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Hernández-León, S., 2011. Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant zooplankton metabolism and its implications on export fluxes. Journal of Marine Systems, 88, 553-562.

Schmoker, C., Thor, P., Hernández-León, S., Hansen, B. W., 2011. Feeding, growth and metabolism of the marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium dominans. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 65, 65-73.

Hernández-León, S., Franchy, G., Moyano, M., Menéndez, I., Schmoker, C., Putzeys, S., 2010. Carbon sequestration and zooplankton lunar cycles: Could we be missing a major component of the biological pump? Limnology and Oceanography, 55, 2503-2512.

Hernández-León, S., 2010. Lunar cycles and iron fertilization. Imber Update, 15.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2010. The effect of the mesoscale variability on the distribution of planktonic invertebrate larvae in the Canary Islands. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90(6): 1217-1225.

Lehette P., Hernández-León, S., 2010. Carbon dioxide production rates of marine copepods around the Canary Islands during the late winter bloom. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 385, 38-43.

Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2010. Intra- and interannual variability in the larval fish assemblage off Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) over 2005-2007. Marine Biology, 158, 257–273.

Robinson, C., Steinberg, D. K., Koppelmann, R., Robison, B. H., Anderson, T. R., Arístegui, J., Carlson, C. A., Frost, J. R., Ghiglione, J. F., Hernández-León, S., Jackson, G. A., Quéguiner, B., Ragueneau, O., Rassoulzadegan, F., Tamburini, C., Tanaka, T., Wishner, K. F., Zhang, J., 2010. Mesopelagic microbial and metazoan diversity and function -a synthesis. Deep-Sea Research II, 57, 1504-1518.

Arístegui, J., Barton, E. D., Alvarez Salgado, X. A., Santos, A. M. P., Figueiras, F. G., Kifani, S., Hernández-León, S., Mason, E., Machu, E., Demarcq, H., 2009. Sub-regional ecosystem variability in the Canary Current upwelling (Review). Progress in Oceanography, 83, 33-48.

Bécognée, P., Moyano, M., Almeida, C., Rodríguez, J. M., Fraile-Nuez, E., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Mesoscale distribution of clupeoid larvae in an upwelling filament trapped by a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy off Northwest Africa, Deep-Sea Research, 56, 330-343.

Hernández-León, S., 2009. Top-down effects and carbon flux in the ocean: A hypothesis. Journal of Marine Systems, 78, 576-581.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2009. Spatial variability of planktonic invertebrate larvae in the Canary Islands area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K.

Landeira, J. M., Lozano-Soldevilla, F., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2009. Horizontal distribution of invertebrate larvae around the oceanic island of Gran Canaria: the effect of mesoscale variability. Scientia Marina, 73(4): 757-767.

Lehette, P., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Zooplankton biomass estimation from digitized images: A comparison between subtropical and Antarctic organisms. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods, 7, 304-308.

Moyano, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Larval fish abundance and distribution during the late winter bloom in the Canary Island waters. Fisheries Oceanography, 18, 51-61.

Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. Temporal and along shelf distribution of the larval fish assemblage off Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Scientia Marina, 73, 85-96.

Rodríguez, J. M., Moyano, M., Hernández-León, S., 2009. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African coastal transition zone: A review. Progress in Oceanography, 83, 314-321.

Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C. M., Hernández-León, S., Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., 2009. Impact of submarine hydrothermal vents on the metal composition of krill and its excretion products. Marine Chemistry, 113, 129-136.

Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., 2009. Metabolism and biomass vertical distribution of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait during austral summer 2000. Polar Research, 28, 415-425.

Brochier, T., Ramzi, A., Lett, C., Machu, E., Berraho, A., Freon, P., Hernández-León, S., 2008. Modelling sardine and anchovy ichthyoplankton transport in the Canary Current System. Journal of Plankton Research, 30, 1133-1146.

Hernández-León, S., Montero, I., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Bruce-Lauli, E., 2008. Mesozooplankton biomass and indices of grazing and metabolism in Antarctic waters. Polar Biology, 31, 1373-1382.

Hernández-León, S., 2008. Natural variability of fisheries and lunar illumination: A hypothesis. Fish and Fisheries, 9, 138-154.

Hernández-León, S., Fraga, C., Ikeda, T., 2008. A global estimation of mesozooplankton ammonium excretion in the ocean. Journal of Plankton Research, 30, 577-585.

Baltar, F., Arístegui, J., Herndl, G. J., Gasol, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2007. Strong coastal-ocean and surface-depth gradients in prokaryotic assemblage structure and activity in a coastal transition zone region. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 50, 63-74.

Echevarría, F., Acuña, J. L., Hernández-León, S., Saiz, E., Santos, A. M. P., Barange, M., 2007. Ecological functioning of the Iberian Seas: A synthesis of GLOBEC research in Spain and Portugal. Progress in Oceanography, 74, 95-97.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez, M., Arístegui, J., 2007. Mesozooplankton in the Canary Current System: The coastal-ocean transition zone. Progress in Oceanography, 74, 397-421.

Tovar-Sánchez, A., Duarte, C. M., Hernández-León, S., Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., 2007. Krill as a central node for iron cycling in the Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L11601.

Arístegui, J., Alvarez-Salgado, X. A., Barton, E. D., Figueiras, F. G., Hernández León, S., Roy, C., Santos, A. M. P., 2006. Oceanography and Fisheries of the Canary Current/Iberian region of the Eastern North Atlantic. In: A.R. Robinson & K.W. Berink (ed.), THE SEA: Volume 14B – The Global Coastal Ocean: Interdisciplinary Regional Studies and Syntheses. Harvard University Press. 877-931.

Bécognée, P., Barrera, A., Almeida, C., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., 2006. Annual cycle of clupeiform larvae around Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands. Fisheries Oceanography, 15, 4, 293-300.

Hernández-León, S., Montero, I., 2006. Zooplankton biomass estimated from digitalized images in Antarctic waters: A calibration exercise. Journal Geophysical Research, 111, C05S03.

Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 2006. Vertical distribution of fish larvae in the Canaries CTZ, in summer. Marine Biology, 149, 885-897.

Yebra, L., Hirst, A., Hernández-León, S., 2006. Assessment of Calanus finmarchicus growth and dormancy using the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) method. Journal of Plankton Research, 28, 1191-1198.

Hernández-León, S., Ikeda, T., 2005. Zooplankton Respiration. In: Williams, P.L.B. and P. Del Giorgio (Eds.) Respiration in aquatic ecosystems, Oxford University Press, 57-82.

Hernández-León, S., Ikeda, T., 2005. A Global Assessment of Mesozooplankton Respiration in the Ocean. J. Plankton Res., 27, 153-158.

Pelegrí, J. L., Arístegui, J., Cana, L., González-Dávila, M., Hernández-Guerra, A., Hernández-León, S., Marrero-Díaz, A., Montero, M. F., Sangrà, P., Santana-Casiano, J. M., 2005. Coupling between the open ocean and the coastal upwelling region off Northwest Africa: Water recirculation and offshore pumping of organic matter. Journal of Marine System, 54, 3-37.

Putzeys, S., Hernández-León, S., 2005. A model of the diel vertical migration of zooplankton in the Canary Island waters: Implication for the active carbon flux. J. Sea Res., 53, 213-222.

Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Hernández-León, S., 2005. Vertical distribution of zooplankton and active flux across an anticyclonic eddy in the Canary Island waters. Deep-Sea Res. I, 52, 69-83.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., 2004. Zooplankton biomass and indices of grazing and metabolism during a Late Winter Bloom in subtropical waters. Mar. Biol., 145, 1191-1200.

Rodríguez, J. M., Barton, E. D., Hernández-León, S., Arístegui, J., 2004. The influence of mesoscale physical processes on the larval fish community in the Canaries CTZ, in summer. Progr. Oceanogr., 62, 171-188.

Yebra, L., Hernández-León, S., 2004. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases activity as a growth index in Daphnia magna. Journal of Plankton Research, 26, 351-356.

Yebra, L., Almeida, C., Bécognée, P., Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., 2004. The effect of upwelling filaments and island-induced eddies on indices of feeding and metabolism in copepods. Progr. Oceanogr., 62, 151-169.

Fernández de Puelles, M. L., Grás, D., Hernández-León, S., 2003. Annual cycle of zooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in the Balearic Sea, Western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology, 23, 1-17.

Schmoker, C., Hernández-León, S., 2003. The effect of food on the respiration rates of Daphnia magna using a flow-through system. Scientia Marina, 67, 361-365.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Gómez, M., Rodríguez, J. M., Arístegui, J., 2002. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in relation to a filament off the Northwest African Upwelling zone. Journal of Marine Research, 60, 327-346.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., 2002. Lunar cycle of zooplankton biomass in subtropical waters: biogeochemical implications. Journal of Plankton Research, 24, 935-939.

Tett, P., Arístegui, J., Barton, D., Basterretxea, G., de Armas, J. D., Escánez, J., Hernández-León, S., Lorenzo, L., Montero, M. F., 2002. Steady-state DCM dynamics in Canaries waters. Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 3543-3559.

Arístegui, J., Hernández-León, S., Montero, M. F., Gómez, M., 2001. The seasonal planktonic cycle in coastal waters of the Canary Islands. Scientia Marina, 65, 51-58.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez, M., Pagazaurtundua, M., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Montero, I., Almeida, C., 2001. Vertical distribution of zooplankton in Canary Island waters: implications for export flux. Deep-Sea Research I, 48, 1071-1092.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Bécognée, P., Moreno, I., 2001. Diel feeding behaviour of krill in the Gerlache Strait, Antarctica. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 223, 235-242.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Yebra, L., Arístegui, J., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., García-Braun, J., 2001. Zooplankton biomass in subtropical waters: Is there a lunar cycle? Scientia Marina, 65, 59-64.

Hernández-León, S., C. Almeida, C., Gómez, M., Torres, S., Montero, I., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., 2001. Zooplankton biomass and indices of feeding and metabolism in island-generated eddies. J. Mar. Syst., 30, 51-66.

Rodríguez, J. M., Barton, E. D., Eve, L., Hernández-León, S., 2001. Mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution around Gran Canaria, an oceanic island in the NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I, 48, 2161-2183.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Portillo-Hahnefeld, A., Gómez, M., Montero, I., 2000. Biomass and potential feeding, respiration and growth of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait (Antarctic Peninsula) during austral summer. Polar Biology, 23, 679-690.

Ikeda, T., Torres, J. J., Hernández-León, S., Geiger, S. P., 2000. Metabolism. In: Zooplankton Methodology Manual. R. P. Harris, P. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H.R. Skjoldal, and M. Huntley, Eds. Academic Press, 455-532.

Hernández-León, S., Torres, S., Gómez, M., Montero, I., Almeida, C., 1999. Biomass and metabolism of zooplankton in the Bransfield Strait (Antarctic Peninsula) during austral spring. Polar Biology, 21, 214-219.

Hernández-León, S., Postel, L., Arístegui, J., Gómez, M., Montero, M. F., Torres, S., Almeida, C., Kühner, E., Brenning, U., Hagen, E., 1999. Large-scale and mesoscale distribution of plankton biomass and metabolic activity in the Northeastern Central Atlantic. Journal of Oceanography, 55, 471-482.

Rodríguez, J. M., Hernández-León, S., Barton, E. D., 1999. Mesoscale distribution of fish larvae in relation to an upwelling filament off Northwest Africa. Deep-Sea Research I, 46, 1969-1984.

Barton, E.D., Arístegui, J., Tett, P., García-Braun, J., Hernández-León, S., Nykjaer, L., Almeida, C., Almunia, J., Ballesteros, S., Basterretxea, G., Escánez, J., García-Weil, L., Hernández-Guerra, A., López-Laatzen, F., Molina, R., Montero, M. F., Navarro-Pérez, E., Rodríguez-Pérez, J. M., Van Lenning, K., Vélez, H., Wild, K., 1998. The Transition Zone Of The Canary Current Upwelling Region. Progress In Oceanography, 41, 455-504.

Hernández-León, S., 1998. Annual cycle of epiplanktonic copepods in Canary Island waters. Fisheries Oceanography, 7, 252-257.

Hernández-León, S., Arístegui, J., Gómez, M., Torres, S., Almeida, C., Montero, M. F., Ojeda, A., 1998. Mesozooplankton metabolism and its effect on chlorophyll and primary production in slope waters of the Canary Islands. Annales de L´Institute Oceanographique de Paris, 74,127-138.

Arístegui, J., Tett, P., Hernández-Guerra, A., Basterretxea, G., Montero, M. F., Wild, K., Sangrá, P., Hernández-León, S., Cantón, M., García-Braun, J. A., Pacheco, M., Barton, E. D., 1997. The influence of island-generated eddies on chlorophyll distribution: a study of mesoscale variation around Gran Canaria. Deep-Sea Research I, 44, 71-96.

Hernández-León, S., Torres, S., 1997. The relationship between ammonia excretion and GDH activity in marine zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 19, 587-601.

Hernández-León, S., Gómez. M., 1996. Factors affecting the Respiration/ETS ratio in marine zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 18: 239-255.

Hernández-León, S., Almeida, C., Montero, I., 1995. The use of aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) activity to estimate growth rates in zooplankton. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 52, 377-383.

Arístegui, J., Sangrà, P., Hernández-León, S., Cantón, M., Hernández-Guerra, A., Kerling, J., 1994. Island-induced eddies in the Canary Islands. Deep-Sea Research, 41, 1509-1525.

Hernández-León, S., 1991. Accumulation of Mesozooplankton on a wake area as a causative mechanism of the "Island Mass Effect". Marine Biology, 109, 141-147.